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After the campaign of Tacna and Arica, the Peruvian and Bolivian regular armies ceased to exist. Furthermore, Arica was to be limited to commercial use only. Celae planned to retain all the territories of Moquegua, Tacna, and Arica until all peace treaty conditions were satisfied. Although willing to accept the negotiated settlement, Peru and Bolivia insisted that Chile withdraw its forces from all occupied lands as a precondition for discussing peace.
Having captured this territory at great expense, Chile refused to accept these terms and the negotiations failed. To show Peru the futility of further resistance against Chilean forces, on 4 September the Chilean government dispatched an expedition of 2, men  to northern Peru under the command of Captain Patricio Lynch to collect war taxes from wealthy landowners.
On September 11, , the Peruvian government made a decree that made the payment of these taxes an act of treason, but most land owners still paid the Chileans under the belief that denizens of occupied areas had to comply with the occupying army.
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After the campaign of Tacna and Arica, the southern departments of Peru were in Chilean hands, and the allies armies were smashed, so for the Chilean government there was no reason to continue the war. However, public pressure as well as expansionist ambitions pushed the war farther north.
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This forced both the Chilean government and its high command to plan a new campaign with the objective to obtain an unconditional capitulation at the Peruvian capital city. The Chilean forces would have to confront virtually the entire male population of Lima defending prepared positions and supported by a formidable collection of the coastal guns of Lima, located within a few miles of the capital's arsenal and supply depots. On January 13, the 20,  Chilean troops charged 14,  Peruvian defenders in Chorrillos. During the Battle of Chorrillos , the Chileans inflicted a harsh defeat to the Peruvian army and eliminated the first defensive line guarding Lima.
Two days later, on January 15, , after the triumph in the Battle of Miraflores the Chilean army entered Lima.
After the battle there were fires and sackings in the towns of Chorrillos and Barranco. During the occupation of Lima , Chilean troops systematically pillaged Peruvian public buildings, turned the old University of San Marcos into a barracks, raided medical schools and other institutions of education, and stole a series of monuments and artwork that had adorned the city. In November 3, books were returned to the National Library of Peru. Chileans troops entered Lima on 17 January Meanwhile, in Chile the new administration under the command of Domingo Santa Maria pushed for an end to the costly war.
In February , the Chilean forces under the command of Lt.
After many losses the expedition achieved very little and came back to Lima in early July,  p where Letelier and his officers were court-martialed because they illegally diverted money into their own pocket. Chile would once again attempt to dominate the region by sending another campaign force, but the Chilean troops were defeated at the battles of Chicla and Purhuay.
Nonetheless, the treaty would not come into official effect until 8 March During the time prior to that date, Chilean troops occupied the city of Arequipa after an uprising forced the puppet regime of Lizardo Montero to flee to La Paz , Bolivia.
Despite the Peruvian victory, the lack of resources and manpower forced the Peruvian advances in Tacna to stop. To annihilate the guerrilla, Lynch started in January a new offensive with 5, men  p first in the direction of Tarma and then southeast: Huancayo, until Izcuchaca.
The Chilean troops suffered enormous hardships: cold, snow, mountain sickness more than 5,m. The Chileans had to pull back with a loss of soldiers: died in combat, died to disease and deserted.
During the administration of James A. Garfield Mar. Blaine wanted to advance the US presence in Latin America. He believed that England had prodded Chile into war on Peru to secure England's stake in the mineral wealth of the disputed areas. These American attempts reinforced Garcia Calderon's refusal to discuss the matter of territorial cession. When it became known that Blaine's representative to Garcia Calderon, Stephen Hurlburt, would personally profit from the business trade-off, it was clear that Hurlburt was complicating the peace process.
Caceres refused to serve and supported Lizardo Montero instead.
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Montero moved to Arequipa and in this way Garcia Calderon's arrest achieved the union of the forces of Pierola and Caceres. On 1 April Miguel Iglesias, former Defence minister under Pierola, became convinced that the war had to be brought to an end if Peru was not to be completely devastated. He issued a manifesto, "Grito de Montan" , calling for peace and in December called a convention of representatives of the seven departments of northern Peru where he was elected "Regenerating President"  p—  p— To protect and support Iglesias against Montero, on 6 April , Patricio Lynch started a new offensive to drive the Montoneros from central Peru and destroy Caceres' little army.
Unlike in previous plans, the Chilean troops pursued Caceres to northwest through narrow mountain passes until 10 July as the definitive Battle of Huamachuco was fought. The Peruvians were defeated.
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After the signing of the peace on 20 October with the government of Iglesias, Lizardo Montero tried to resist in Arequipa , but fortunately for Chile, the arrival of the its men stampeded Montero's troops and Montero went for a Bolivian asylum. Regular Peruvian forces together with poorly armed people, set up to defend Lima. With little effective Peruvian central government remaining, Chile pursued an ambitious campaign throughout Peru, especially along the coast and in the central Sierra, penetrating as far north as Cajamarca , seeking to eliminate any source of resistance.
Peruvian forces were decisively defeated in the battles of San Juan and Miraflores , and Lima fell in January to the forces of General Baquedano. The southern suburbs of Lima, including the upscale beach area of Chorrillos , were looted by demoralized Peruvian soldiers . Our heritage stretches back to when Bird's custard powder was invented by Alfred Bird, and it is still loved by generations today.
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