Advanced Methods in Computer Graphics: With examples in OpenGL
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This book brings together several advanced topics in computer graphics that are important in the areas of game development, three-dimensional animation and real-time rendering. The book is designed for final-year undergraduate or first-year graduate students, who are already familiar with the basic concepts in computer graphics and programming.
It aims to provide a good foundation of advanced methods such as skeletal animation, quaternions, mesh processing and collision detection. These and other methods covered in the book are fundamental to the development of algorithms used in commercial applications as well as research.
The book is presented in an accessible fashion full of images and examples. We shall now consider another example with five control points P1 : : : P5 on a twodimensional plane as shown in Fig. Since we require a knot vector containing eight values, let us choose a uniformly. A large number of mesh operations extensively use information about mesh connectivity and local orientation around vertices. Mesh data structures also support efficient processing of incidence and adjacency queries.
In this section, we consider one face-based and two edge-based data structures. Download sample. Our direct-illumination model couldn't account for that effect, but in OpenGL it is possible to set up a light source with a red diffuse component to simulate the indirect illumination from the red wall. Each individual light must then be separately enabled and configured. Fancier lighting effects requires more than just enabling one or more lights - they also need to be configured with a series of glLightfv commands. The following example illustrates enabling and configuring a blue ambient light and a yellow point light which contributes the same color yellow to the ambient, diffuse, and specular terms.
Only the main program is given because the rest of the program is the same as in house. It is legal to use values between Using negative values for the ambient light serves to darken the overall scene. A maximum of 8 lights is permitted. Lights are subject to the modelview matrix, just like the objects in the scene.
They are not, however, subject to the projection matrix. Thus, where light positions are specified in the code matters.
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In the house2. This means the lights are effectively defined in VC, and the positions specified are relative to the camera's position. Now, consider what happens if the viewing transformation is changed e. If, on the other hand, the lighting information is specified after the viewing transformation is defined, the lights will remain in the same position relative to the scene but move relative to the camera.
Change the eye point to 0,0,7 and observe the effects, in terms of both the scene objects and the light. Make sure this makes sense in light of the discussion in the previous section. Move the "set up lights" section in main to just before the call to glutMainLoop. Remove or comment out the glLoadIdentity part when you do this. Compare the scene when the eye point is set at 5,5,5 to when it is set at 0,0,7. What do you observe, and why? Materials, like many other OpenGL commands, affect the current state - once a material is set, it remains in effect until changed. The following program demonstrates materials:.
The light positions and colors have been changed slightly, but the main focus of this example is on the setMaterial function and the calls to it in display.
Note that the current material remains in effect until changed, so the four wheels of the car have the same material as the body of the car. Each material has reflectances or colors for the ambient, diffuse, and specular terms of the lighting equation. The shininess is the specular exponent in the lighting equation.
Create a program with a bunch of curved objects such as spheres, cones, or torii , and use different material settings for each. Try to create a plastic-looking object, a metal-looking object, and a chalky-looking object.
Animation in OpenGL doesn't require much more than drawing a static scene. The following program displays a slowly moving teapot:. The animation is actually accomplished by defining the idle callback - the "idle callback" is a function which is called when OpenGL isn't handling any other kinds of events like redisplays or mouse clicks. Like the display callback, the idle callback is a function with no parameters and which returns void. It is called animate in this program, but you can call it anything you want. The idle callback is set up with the glutIdleFunc.
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Typically you would call this in main , right after setting up the other window callbacks, but you can call it any time you want such as to change the idle callback function in order to start and stop the animation. The animate function handles updating the state - that is, anything which is different from one frame to the next.
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In this case, it is the teapot's position since it is moving. This state should be stored in one or more global variables.
Advanced Graphics Programming Using OpenGL
Global variables are necessary because both the display function and the animate function need to know the values display so it can draw and animate so it can update , and the values need to persist between calls to animate - and you aren't allowed to change the parameters or return values for the callback functions themselves.
Once the state has been updated, the screen needs to be redrawn to reflect the new state. Don't call the display function directly! The only other new elements of the program are changes to display in order to translate the teapot by the specified amount, and in main to initialize the state's variables to the teapot's starting location. Running the flying teapot program doesn't produce very pleasing results - the image flickers quite a bit because the screen is constantly being cleared and the teapot redrawn. Since the time that the screen is blank or contains only a half-drawn teapot is a significant portion of the time between teapot redraws, the image flickers.
The solution is to use double buffering - instead of clearing and drawing directly to the screen, the image is drawn to an offscreen buffer which can then be transferred to the screen very quickly and all at once so that a completed image is on the screen most of the time instead of a half-drawn image. Look for these lines in the improved flying teapot program:. GLUT provides a number of nice high-level objects cones, spheres, cubes, etc , but sometimes you want something different. OpenGL provides a number of primitives including points, lines, and polygons. Each of these objects is ultimately made up of an ordered collection of vertices.
This section deals only with collections of points; see chapter 2 of the Red Book for more information about lines and polygons. Vertex coordinates are specified with glVertex. There are a number of variations of glVertex , but you can get away with just glVertex3d which takes three the 3 double the d values representing the x, y, and z coordinates of the vertex.
Vertices don't occur by themselves - they are grouped together to form a collection of points or lines or polygons. The beginning and end of each group is denoted by glBegin and glEnd , and the parameter to glBegin tells OpenGL how to interpret the collection of vertices that is to follow. For example, the following specifies a collection of individual points which happen to form the corners of a box :. Changing glBegin 's parameter changes the interpretation. You can specify more information for each vertex besides just its coordinates.
Programming with OpenGL: Advanced Rendering
For example, the current drawing color can be set:. If you want to do more than this - such as to let OpenGL's lighting model light things which means you need to set vertex normals , see chapter 2 of the Red Book. Setting "top" or "base" to 0 results in a cone. The key to transparency is blending - the combination of existing color values in the frame buffer i. Without blending, writing a new color for a pixel overwrites the existing value in the frame buffer.
What This Guide Contains
Since blending combines existing clors with new colors, it lets you have transparent objects and perform antialiasing. You also need to tell OpenGL how to blend each new color the source color with the existing color in the frame buffer the destination color. There are many options, including simply adding the new source color to the destination color and computing a weighted average of the two colors.
However, before saying how to specify the blending function, alpha values need to be introduced. To handle transparency, the RGB color model is extended to RGBA - each color is made up of a red component, a green component, a blue component This alpha value specifies the transparency - 1 means the color is completely opaque, while 0 means it is completely transparent. Once you have enabled blending, you need to specify the blending function with glBlendFunc. Use the second option if you want pixel colors to be summed with each new contribution and the first if you want to combine pixel colors without making things brighter just by having more things drawn in one pixel.
Note: do not enable depth-buffering if you are using blending! You want to draw all of the pixels in the scene regardless of overlaps if you are combining several colors into one. Additional tricks are required if you want combine depth-buffering for some objects with blending for other objects.